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西班牙建筑师Guillermo Bosque

专访记者:王玉   2016-11-08 13:56

西班牙建筑师Guillermo Bosque(薄吉烨),一年中大部分时间都是在旅行,谈到工作,他最爱用的词就是“Play”,他享受工作和生活的状态真的非常有感染力。今天Archist.cn采访Guillermo Bosque,一起走近他脑洞大开的建筑世界,分享他旅行中的所见所闻,还有他的那些另类的工作方法。



Guillermo Bosque(薄吉烨)简介

Guillermo Bosque西班牙建筑师,毕业于巴塞罗那理工大学 - ETSAB,专门从事建筑保护以及城市规划和历史环境的干预。

他曾多次与公共机构合作,如担任巴塞罗那市政厅遗产保护顾问,参与Alella(加泰罗尼亚,西班牙)市政厅改善城市规划以及制定历史悠久的Les Borges Blanques(西班牙加泰罗尼亚)市中心的翻新计划。

2012年-2015年,担任中国上海JAS建筑事务所设计总监,主要从事大型和中型公共建筑项目。如银川体育中心,苏州新的CBD商业综合体,上海太原路的公寓楼,上海黄埔文化馆,嘉定小学和幼儿园。

在中国工作了几年后,他又在亚洲游历一年。受这一段旅行经历的影响,他与两个合作伙伴成立了一个探险旅行的公司,正处于启动阶段。目前,他还在西班牙拥有一个自己的实践项目,主要在西班牙的北部修复一些独栋建筑。


Guillermo Bosque-封面.jpg


▎采访正文


Archist.cn:你是何时立志成为一名建筑师的?你最欣赏的建筑师是谁?


Gu:Since I was a kid had very clear that I wanted to become an architect, even though there are no other architects in my family, so I guess I can say it was totally vocational, no one influenced me into taking this career. I have always admired contemporary Portuguese architects like Siza. I think they make a very calm architecture, very balanced maintaining tradition and functionality and avoiding “loud” architecture.

当我还是一个孩子的时候就很清楚我想要成为一名建筑师,即使我的家族里没有人当过建筑师,所以我想我可以说这是完全的职业,没有人影响我选择这个职业。我一直很喜欢葡萄牙当代建筑师比如说Siza。我认为他们做出的建筑非常的平静沉稳,把维护传统和功能性这两者平衡的非常好,避免了“声势夺人”的建筑。


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Avaro Siza(阿尔瓦罗·西扎)


加里西亚当代艺术中心.jpg

Avaro Siza(阿尔瓦罗·西扎)凭借「加里西亚当代艺术中心」获得1992年普利兹克奖


Archist.cn:建筑师的工作很辛苦,你怎么来找寻工作中的快乐?你平衡工作和生活享受的方法是什么?


Gu:I think that in this profession there are many different areas in which an architect can find his own path, some feel very comfortable with structural design, some urban planning. I think mine is to play with the space. Once I take a project the first thing I do is to get myself into the place, start imagining stories of how the people will be using it, how will they move, what will they feel, I become an imaginary user of it and little by little the design appears. That is how I get in “flow”.

Once I am out of the office I totally avoid the design tools, Autocad or whatever, but still that way of seeing the architecture imagining stories about it, fantasizing, is my way of understanding the world around me. But I enjoy it.

我认为,一个建筑师在找到他自己的工作方法这个过程中,他可能要经历很多不同的阶段。有些人觉得结构设计,一些城市规划处理起来非常地得心应手。我认为我的(让工作变得有趣的方法)是和空间做游戏。一旦我接手了一个项目,我要做的第一件事就是让自己进入这个地方,开始想象故事画面,人们会如何使用它的,他们会如何移动,他们会感觉什么,我成为一个虚构的用户,设计灵感就从中一点一点地出现。这就是我的意识“流淌”的过程。


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当我不在办公室,我完全避免接触设计工具,AutoCAD或其他的什么,但仍然会像这样看着建筑想象着它的故事,奇思妙想,是我了解我周围世界的方式。但我乐在其中。

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Archist.cn:如何保持设计的灵感?有秘诀可以分享吗?


Gu:As I said, I think the best way is to really get inside the project, make yourself a user of it, imagine it vividly as it will be in real life. Never design as just drawing lines, seeing just the floor layout, then projecting it to make the facades… It is more of putting emotion into it and playing with it.

And another tip that kind of complements the previous one, visit a lot of architecture, when you are in a place, be aware of what it is, how it feels; if it is good, why does it work. If it is not good, what are the problems…

就像我刚才说的,我认为最好的方法就是去真正地融入项目之中,把自己当成它的用户,身临其境地想象它在真实生活中会遇到的状况。不要把设计仅仅当做是画线条,看到的只是地板布局,然后突出它,使外墙怎样怎样……更多的是把情感融入它,和它玩起来。

还有另外一个小建议作为以上的补充,那就是,大量地参观走入实地地去看建筑,当你在一个地方时,要知道它是什么,感觉如何,如果它是好的,它好在哪里。如果不好,那它有什么问题呢……

DSCF7817.jpg


Archist.cn:你最近一次看到的令你感到惊叹的建筑设计作品是哪个?建筑师是谁?它哪些地方吸引了你?


Gu:When I was travelling in Portugal I visited many works by Alvaro Siza. I think they have a sense of solemnity and functionality, of belonging to the place.

当我在葡萄牙旅行时我参观了阿尔瓦罗·西扎的许多作品。我认为它们有一种庄严感和功能性,很有地方特色。


Iberê Camargo基金会展览馆.jpg

▲Avaro Siza(阿尔瓦罗·西扎)代表作之一Iberê Camargo基金会展览馆


波尔图大学建筑学院.jpg

▲Avaro Siza(阿尔瓦罗·西扎)代表作之一波尔图大学建筑学院


马尔克教堂.jpg

▲Avaro Siza(阿尔瓦罗·西扎)代表作之一马尔克教堂


Archist.cn:你曾经在中国生活工作过很多年,以你的切身体会来谈谈中国建筑环境和西班牙有哪些不同之处?你更喜欢的工作氛围是怎样的?


Gu:It is totally different in China and in Spain. In Spain architecture firms are small firms, up to 10 people. The architect takes care of the whole process, preliminary design, concept design, design development, final design, taking care of the structure, MEP, budget, etc always in direct contact with the client. Then, during construction, the architect also is in charge of getting the permits, supervising the construction works on site, even the security of the workers, and keeping the costs on budget. And finally he hands the finished building over to the owner. So in Spain the architect is kind of a master in chief of the whole process of building.

The way it works in Spain is more a holistic approach, the architects controls it all and you have full control of every aspect of it. As an architect you get very involved in the building, it is your master piece. Actually architects in Spain have the right to put their name somewhere in the finished building, like a signature. It is something not very used nowadays, although it was quite common a few decades ago, but gives you an idea about how architecture is understood more like a work of art of one person. On the bad side, the architect has a huge work load, it is very stressful, architects need to care not only about design but also technical aspects, building laws, project management…

In China, from my experience, most firms involved in architecture tend to be quite big, and the design by the architect is separated from the final design which is lent over to the LDIs. The architect focuses in one part of the process. For example in many big companies in China many architects work doing only façade designs for different projects, others do only the concept designs that will be developed by someone else. The good thing is that you can get very good in your area of expertise. The bad part is that you lose the global concept, so the architecture has a risk of ending up being just an addition of many different parts that do not work along ones with the others.

1477897668462447.png


中国和西班牙(的建筑环境)完全不同。在西班牙,建筑公司是小公司,最多就10个人。建筑师需要照顾项目的全过程,初步设计、概念设计、设计开发,最终设计,照顾的结构、MEP、预算等都与客户直接接触。然后,在施工过程中,建筑师还负责取得许可证,监督施工现场的施工,甚至工人的安全,并保持预算的成本。最后他把完成的建筑物移交给业主。所以在西班牙,建筑师是整个建设过程中总负责人。

在西班牙工作的方式更是一个全局掌控的方法,建筑师控制这一切,你有它每一个方面的完全掌控权。作为一个建筑师,你要完全地参与建筑,这是你作为总负责人的责任。事实上,在西班牙的建筑师有权把他们的名字刻在完成的建筑的某个地方,像一个签名。这种做法在现在不太常用,虽然它在几十年前是相当普遍的,它让你感觉到建筑师是从事艺术创作的一类人。(这种工作方法)也有不好的一面,建筑师承担一个巨大的工作负荷,这是非常紧张的,建筑师需要关心的不仅是设计,还有技术方面,建筑法规,项目管理……


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在中国,从我的经验来看,大多数企业参与的建筑往往是相当大型的,由建筑师设计后,最终分散到建筑研究院的各个设计师手上分工完成。建筑师专注于这个过程其中的一部分。例如在很多中国大公司里工作的大多数建筑师,他们负责不同的项目,有的只做外立面设计,然后其他人只做概念设计,而开发则由另一些人来做。好的是,你可以在你的专业领域得到很好的练习。不好的是,你失去了全局的概念,所以建筑有个风险就是它是由不同的部分组合完成而不是大家一起一点一点搭建完成。


Archist.cn:有想过自己组建一个建筑团队吗?如果成立了建筑工作室,你倾向于接哪一类项目?比如旧房改造,或者私人别墅设计?


Gu:Actually in Spain, schools of architecture are very focused on the idea that their students, once they finish their studies, open their own firms. This is good because the educational program is very exhaustive, but also bad because there is no room for so many young architects trying to open their own firm. But I am also a control freak, so yes, definitely I am for owning my own practice.

I specialized in architecture heritage and building restoration, and that is what I like the most. I prefer working in a project which already has lots of preexistence and conditionings rather than developing a whole new thing out of nowhere in an empty flat plot.

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西班牙大学课堂


事实上,在西班牙,建筑学校的教学理念非常统一,他们的学生,一旦他们完成学业,就自己开公司。这是好的,因为教育计划是非常详尽的,但也很糟糕,因为没有任何空间让这么多的年轻建筑师去尝试开他们自己的公司。但我也是一个控制狂,所以是的,我肯定是按照自己的做法来。

1477559321213240.jpg西班牙古城托莱多


(如果成立了建筑工作室)我会专门从事建筑遗产和建筑修复,这是我最喜欢的。比起在一张空白平面图上设计出一个全新的东西,我更加乐意在有着很多历史经验和条条框框约束的项目上发挥特长。


Archist.cn:谈谈你的家乡城市巴塞罗那的建筑?


Gu:I was actually born in Bilbao, grew up in Zaragoza, and then moved to Barcelona for college. All three cities, but specially Barcelona, are amazing for architecture and history. I love Barcelona mainly because it has kept growing since it was established by Romans 2.000 years ago, without ever demolishing big areas of urban fabric but reusing them, reshaping, it has been more like an organic growth. So the city nowadays is the addition of all the small interventions of its inhabitants throughout 2.000 years, each responding to the conditions and the society of the time they lived. And you can see the strata just like it was geology; you can read the city and understand every bit of it.

Also the good thing about Barcelona is that it is a city that keeps innovating, trying new things constantly. It has always been a city very open to new things historically, and that also reflects in architecture.

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实际上我是在毕尔巴鄂出生,在萨拉戈萨长大,后来搬到了巴塞罗那去上大学。所有这三个城市,当然最特别是巴塞罗那,它的建筑和历史非常不可思议。

1477558293348841.jpg巴塞罗那


我爱巴塞罗那,主要是因为它一直在成长,因为它是由罗马人2000年前建立的,没有拆除城市的整体结构而是在重新利用它们,重新塑造,它更像是在有机的成长。所以,当今城市的样貌是居住在此的人们这2000年间在古城原有的基础上一点点小规模干预改变而累积形成的,(每一点的改变)都是他们生活所处时代的条件和社会环境的反映。你可以看到它(巴塞罗那)就像是地质学里的地层,你可以阅读这个城市,了解它的每一点。

1477558395587718.gif巴塞罗那城区规划


巴塞罗那还有一点好处是,它是一个不断创新,不断尝试新事物的城市。在历史上,它一直是一个对新事物非常开放的城市,这也反映在建筑上。


Archist.cn:你对自己的职业生涯回顾,有令自己感到骄傲自豪的作品要和读者分享吗?谈谈你的设计理念和创作过程?


Gu:I enjoyed very much working in China as a Design Director doing mainly new public buildings, letting aside for a bit the restoration. I had the freedom of letting the imagination fly, and clients were very receptive.

I very much like the result of the apartments in Taiyuan road in Shanghai. It was one of the few times I designed something in an already established environment in China. It is in a heritage protected area of old Shanghai, and the client also was an expert in Chinese heritage architecture but who was very receptive, so the starting point of the design was already very interesting. I tried to do something contemporary but not completely breaking up with the tradition, the looks and the scale of the surroundings. That is what I like, fitting my little piece of the puzzle in an existing environment, others had fit theirs before, and later others will come to put their small piece, making it an ever evolving puzzle but never breaking up the continuity of the place.

In another totally different scale, I especially liked designing the Nanshi 文化馆. For me, designing a public building is a totally different approach than other kind of architecture. That project was in a plot that had been already flattened, but still I tried to play with the scale, the contrast, the balance of the different volumes, the public areas, to make it fit to the surroundings. For public building I think you need to “stage” the project a bit, make it more like a theater stage for the society to represent itself, a bit more dramatic. It needs to be functional but also to have a part of monument. I think societies need monuments, landmarks that get into the collective memory of the society and serve as reference points throughout the generations, so people recognize themselves in them, feels they belong in that society.

我很喜欢在中国担任设计总监的工作,(我们)主要做的是新的公共建筑,暂时的把修复工作放一边。我有充分的自由让想象力飞翔,而客户们也非常好说话。

上海太原路1.jpg上海太原路2.jpg

上海太原路公寓


我很喜欢上海太原路公寓的设计结果。这是我为数不多的其中一次在中国已经成形的环境空间里设计东西。它在旧上海的遗产保护区范围内,客户也是中国传统建筑的专家,但是非常的包容好沟通,所以设计的出发点就已经很有趣。我试图做一些现代的东西,但没有完全打破传统(和周围建筑相比,无论是从外观上或是规模上。)这是我喜欢的,在一个现有的环境中修改我的小拼图,一部分修复成它们本来的样子,然后其他一部分把它们分解成小片,使其成为一个不断有进步空间的拼图,但永远不会打破地方的连续性。

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上海太原路-旧上海的遗产保护区


在另一个完全不同的规模上,我特别喜欢设计黄埔文化馆。对我来说,设计一个公共建筑和设计其他类型的建筑相比,是完全不同的方法。该项目在一个已经整理平坦的空地上,但我仍然要努力控制住规模,对比度,不同的体积,公共领域这些不同因素之间的平衡,使它匹配周围的环境。对于公共建筑,我认为你需要使项目有点“舞台化”,使它对于社会而言更像是一个戏剧舞台来表达它自己,多点戏剧性。它需要功能性,但也要有些流传后世的价值。我认为社会需要纪念碑,地标,来成为一个社会的集体记忆,并以此为参考点,贯穿几代人的生活,让人们意识到自己身处其中,感觉到他们属于这个社会。

黄埔文化馆2.jpg黄埔文化馆1.jpg黄埔文化馆3.jpg

黄埔文化馆


Archist.cn:最近在忙些什么呢?有什么计划吗?


Gu:I returned to Spain after travelling for half a year, and now I resumed the restoration practice. Right now I am into the initial stages of reconverting an old river mill into a house. It is a beautiful site, in the woods, next to the river and five minutes away from the Atlantic coast of Spain. Also the building has a lot of history and has a very interesting layout.

My idea right now is becoming also the developer. Buying old buildings, reconverting and selling them. The real estate market in Spain is recovering, and this way I can work in the projects I like.

旅行了半年之后,我又回到了西班牙,目前我继续在做修复方面的练习。这段时间,我正在把一个河边的旧磨坊修复改造成一个房子,现在这个项目还处于初级阶段。它坐落在一个很美的地方,在树林里,河流的旁边并且到西班牙的大西洋海岸只有五分钟的距离。这个建筑也有着很悠久的历史,布局设计的非常有意思。

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西班牙 伊维萨岛


我现在的想法是也成为一名开发商。购买旧建筑,重新修复改造然后再卖掉它们。西班牙的房地产市场正在复苏,这样的话,我就可以在我喜欢的项目中工作了。


(完)



非常感谢建筑师Guillermo Bosque接受我们的专访,进入Guillermo Bosque的个人主页了解他的更多信息和案例。


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